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GUIDELINES FOR APPROPRIATE USE OF BLOOD

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:25 PM Comments comments (0)

Key points ¾

The appropriate use of blood and blood

products means the transfusion of safe blood

products only to treat conditions leading to

significant morbidity or mortality which cannot

be prevented or effectively managed by other

means.

¾

Transfusion carries the risk of adverse reactions

and transfusion – transmissible infections (e.g.

hepatitis, HIV, malaria, etc). NB. Plasma can ...

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GUIDELINES FOR APPROPRIATE USE OF BLOOD

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:20 PM Comments comments (0)

Refer to the National blood transfusion Guidelines

for further details including information on:

 

Donor recruitment and selection

Blood collection and storage procedures and

records

Laboratory testing of donor and recipient blood

Transfusion reactions

Clinical aspects of blood transfusion and

administration

The foll...

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HYPOTHYROIDISM (Myxoedema)

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:15 PM Comments comments (1)

A condition resulting from thyroid hormone

deficiency. It is 5 times more common in females

than in males.

 

Causes

 

z

Autoimmune disease

 

z

Post-therapeutic (especially after radiotherapy or

surgical treatment for hyperthyroidism)

 

z

Secondary - due to enzyme defects

 

Clinical features

 

z

Dull f...

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HYPERTHYROIDISM (Thyrotoxicosis)

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:10 PM Comments comments (1)

Excessive production of thyroid hormones

 

Causes

 

z

Grave disease (common in females)

 

z

Neonatal thyrotoxicosis

 

z

Iatrogenic causes

 

z

Tumours of thyroid gland (adenomas, multiple

nodules)

 

z

Inflammation of the thyroid gland (thyroiditis)

 

Clinical features

 

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DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:10 PM Comments comments (0)

An acute metabolic complication of diabetes

mellitus more common in the insulin-dependent

(IDDM) type diabetics

 

Cause

 

z

Newly diagnosed diabetes

z

Poor control of diabetes mellitus

z

Infections and trauma

 

Clinical features

 

z

Excessive thirst, fluid intake and passing of urine

z

Tiredness

z

We...

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DIABETES MELLITUS

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:10 PM Comments comments (0)

Metabolic disease resulting from insulin insufficiency

or ineffectiveness, primarily due to peripheral

resistance to the action of insulin.

 

Cause

 

z

Defective insulin production/release or resistance

to its action

 

Clinical features

 

z

Excessive thirst, excessive fluid intake (polydipsia)

z

Excessive urine production (polyuria)

z ...

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CUSHING'S SYNDROME

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:10 PM Comments comments (0)

Chronic glucocorticord excess from whatever cause,

leads to the constellation of symptom and physical

features known as (CUSHING, SYNDROME). Its

most common cause is iatrogenic, resulting from

chronic glucocorticoid therapy.

 

Cause:

 

z

Iatrogenic

z

Excessive ACTH:

z

Cushings Disease

z

Ectopic ACTHI production

z

Adrenal adenoma

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ADDISON?S DISEASE

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:10 PM Comments comments (0)

A condition where the adrenal gland produces

insufficient gluococorticoid hormones (adrenal

insufficiency)

Causes

 

z

Autoimmune (self destruction of the gland)

z

TB of the adrenals

z

Surgical adrenal removal

z

Cancer affecting adrenal glands

z

Bleeding into the adrenals

z

Necrosis of the adrenals

z

HIV/AIDS

 

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HEAD INJURIES

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:05 PM Comments comments (0)

Damage to the head tissue causing swelling ±

wound ± fracture

 

Cause

 

z

Road traffic accident

z

Assault, fall or a bang on the head

 

Clinical feature

 

z

May be closed (without a cut) or open (with a cut)

 

z

Headache pain

 

z

Swelling or cut wound on the head

 

z

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WOUNDS

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:05 PM Comments comments (0)

Any break in the continuity of the skin or mucosa

 

Causes

 

z

Sharp objects, eg. knife, causing cuts, punctures

 

z

Blunt objects causing abrasions, lacerations,

bruises

 

z

Infections, eg. abscess

 

z

Bites, eg. insect, animal, human

 

z

Missile and blast injury, eg. gunshot, mines

 

z ...

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BURNS

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:00 PM Comments comments (0)

Tissue injury caused by thermal, chemical, electrical

or radiation energy

 

Causes

 

z

Thermal, eg. hot fluids, flame, steam, hot solids, sun

z

Chemical, eg. acids, alkalis and other chemicals

z

Electrical, eg. Domestic,(low voltage)

 

Transmission in (high voltage) lighting

z

Radiation, eg. exposure to excess radiotherapy or

radioactive materials ...

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FRACTURES

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:00 PM Comments comments (0)

A fracture is a complete or incomplete break in a bone

 

Causes

 

z

Trauma, eg. road traffic accident, assault, falls

z

Bone weakening by disease,

eg. cancer, TB, osteomyelitis,osteoporosis

 

Clinical features

 

z

Pain, tenderness

z

Swelling

z

Inability to use/move the affected part

z

Deformity

z

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NATURE OF EXPOSURE CONDITION OF ANIMAL RECOMMENDED ACTION

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:00 PM Comments comments (0)

At time of

exposure

10 days

later

 

1. Saliva in contact with skin,

but no skin lesion

Healthy Healthy

Rabid

Do not vaccinateDo not vaccinate

Suspect Healthy

Rabid

Do not vaccinate

Do not vaccinate

2. Saliva in contact with skin

that has lesions, minor

Healthy Healthy

Rabid

Do not vaccinate

Vaccinate

bites on tr...

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BOILS (Furunculosis)

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 5:10 AM Comments comments (0)

Deep-seated infection of the hair follicles

 

Causes

 

z

Bacterial infection with Staphylococcus aureus

leading to the collection of pus

 

Clinical features

 

z

Common in people with poor general health,

diabetes or the debilitated

 

z

Presentation usually occurs with one or more

acute, tender, painful swellings (furuncles) at site...

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BOILS (Furunculosis)

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 5:05 AM Comments comments (0)

Deep-seated infection of the hair follicles

 

Causes

 

z

Bacterial infection with Staphylococcus aureus

leading to the collection of pus

 

Clinical features

 

z

Common in people with poor general health,

diabetes or the debilitated

 

z

Presentation usually occurs with one or more

acute, tender, painful swellings (furuncles) at site...

Read Full Post »

BOILS (Furunculosis)

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 5:05 AM Comments comments (0)

Deep-seated infection of the hair follicles

 

Causes

 

z

Bacterial infection with Staphylococcus aureus

leading to the collection of pus

 

Clinical features

 

z

Common in people with poor general health,

diabetes or the debilitated

 

z

Presentation usually occurs with one or more

acute, tender, painful swellings (furuncles) at site...

Read Full Post »

ANIMAL BITE

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 3:55 AM Comments comments (0)

Bite from domestic or wild animal

Clinical features

 

z

May result in infection usually by anaerobic

 

bacteria

z

May cause complications from tetanus and rabies

z

Tooth marks or scratches, puncture wounds,

 

lacerations

z

Bleeding, tissue necrosis

 

Dealing with the animal

 

If the animal can be identified and ca...

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HUMAN BITE

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 3:55 AM Comments comments (0)

Clinical features

z

Teeth marks

z

Bleeding

z

Laceration

Management

First aid, tetanus prophylaxis, supportive therapy,

antibiotics: give as in Bites.

INSECT BITES & STINGS

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 3:55 AM Comments comments (0)

Causes

 

z

Bees, wasps, hornets and ants:

 

- venom is usually mild but may cause

anaphylactic shock in previously sensitized

persons

z

Spiders and scorpions:

 

- most are non-venomous or only mildly

venomous

z

Other stinging insects

 

Clinical features

 

z

Swelling, discolouration, burning sensation, pai...

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SNAKEBITE

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 3:55 AM Comments comments (0)

Clinical features

 

z

Puncture wounds

 

z

Bleeding, eg. haematuria, oozing from the site,

haematemesis - usually mild but may be

uncontrollable

 

z

Pain, swelling

 

z

Paralysis

 

z

Excessive salivation

 

z

Other features will depend on the type of snake

and poison, i.e. haemolytic, n...

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