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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY DEFINED

Posted by sammy on August 7, 2018 at 6:00 PM Comments comments (1)

Define anatomy and physiology, and name several subspecialties of these sciences.

Two branches of science—anatomy and physiology—provide the foundation for understanding the body’s parts and functions.

Anatomy (a-NAT-o¯-me¯; ana- up; -tomy process of cutting) is the science of body structures and the relationships among them. It was first studied by dissection (...

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Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

Posted by sammy on August 7, 2018 at 5:40 PM Comments comments (0)

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HUMAN BODY

T H E H U M A N B O D Y A N D H O M E O S T A S I S

Humans have many ways to maintain homeostasis, the state of relative stability of the body’s internal environment. Disruptions to homeostasis often set in motion corrective cycles, called feedback systems, that help restore the conditions needed for health and life. •

O...

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Hypoglycemia

Posted by sammy on February 18, 2013 at 8:15 AM Comments comments (0)

A clinical condition due to reduced levels of blood sugar (glucose).

Causes

Overdose of insulin or anti-diabetic drugs

Excessive alcohol intake

Starvation

Operations to reduce the size of the stomach (gastrectomy)

Tumours of the pancreas (insulinomas)

Certain drugs, eg. quinine

Hormone deficiencies (cortisol, growth hormone)

Clinical features

Profuse sweating

Nervousness

Fainting

Pal...

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FEBRILE CONVULSIONS

Posted by sammy on February 18, 2013 at 8:10 AM Comments comments (0)

A disorder mainly affecting children between 6 months and 6 years characterised by generalized tonic-clonic seizures in a febrile illness

Cause 

Malaria fever

Respiratory tract infections

Urinary tract infections

Other febrile conditions

Clinical features

Elevated temperatures (>38°C)

Convulsion is usually brief (<15 minutes) but may recur if temperature remains high

No CNS infection or neurological abn...

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DEHYDRATION

Posted by sammy on February 18, 2013 at 8:10 AM Comments comments (0)

A condition brought about by the loss of significant

quantities of fluids and salts from the body

Cause

 Diarrhoea

Vomiting

Excessive sweating as in high fever Respiratory distress

Management in children HC2

Management with Plan A, B or C is based on an

assessment of the degree of dehydration according

to key clinical signs - see table below. Refer to

Management of Childhood Illness MoH 2000 fo...

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RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:55 PM Comments comments (0)

A valvular complication of rheumatic fever.

 

The valves commonly involved are:

 

z

Mitral valves leading to stenosis, incompetence

or both

 

z

Aortic valve leading to stenosis and incompetence

 

Cause

 

z

As for acute rheumatic fever

 

Clinical features

 

z

Heart failure

 

z...

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PULMONARY OEDEMA

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:55 PM Comments comments (0)

Congestion of the lung tissue with fluid

 

Cause

 

z

Cardiogenic: CCF

z

Inflammatory diseases, eg. cancer, TB

z

Fibrotic changes

 

Clinical features

 

z

Dyspnoea, breathlessness

z

Rapid breathing rate

z

Cough with frothy blood stained sputum

 

Differential diagnosis

 

z

...
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PERICARDITIS

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:55 PM Comments comments (0)

Inflammation of the heart membrane (pericardium)

which may be:

z

Acute and self-limiting, sub-acute or chronic

z

Fibrinous, serous, haemorrhagic or purulent

 

 

UCG 2010

204

 

 

 

9. Cardiovascular diseases

Causes

 

z

Viral, eg. Coxsackie A & B, influenza A & B,

Varicella

 

z

...
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SCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE (Coronary heart disease)

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:55 PM Comments comments (0)

A condition in which there is insufficient blood flow

through the coronary arteries of the heart thus

leading to ischaemia and/or infarction

 

Cause/risk factors

 

z

Deposition of fatty material (cholesterol plaques)

inside the coronary arteries

z

Enlarged heart following hypertension

z

Diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension

z

Smoking

z

H...

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HYPERTENSION

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:55 PM Comments comments (0)

Persistently high resting blood pressure (>140/90mm Hg

at least two measurements five minutes apart with

patient seated).

 

Classification of Blood pressure (BP)*

 

Category SBP mmHg DBP mmHg

Normal <120 and <80

Prehypertension 120-139 or 80-89

Hypertension,

stage 1

140-159 or 90-99

Hypertension,

stage 2

=160 or =100

 

key: SBP=sy...

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CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:50 PM Comments comments (0)

Inadequate cardiac output for the body’s needs

despite adequate venous return - may be due to

failure of both left and right ventricles.

 

Causes

 

z

Hypertension

z

Valvular heart disease, eg. rheumatic heart disease

z

Anaemia

z

Myocarditis

z

Prolonged rapid heart beat (Arrythimias)

z

Thyroid disease

z

Cardiomy...

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INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:50 PM Comments comments (0)

An infection of the heart valves and lining of the

heart chambers by microorganisms which is difficult

to diagnose and treat. It is classified into 3 types:

 

.

Sub-acute endocarditis: caused by low virulence

organisms such as Streptococcus viridans

.

Acute endocarditis: caused by common pyogenic

organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus

 

.

Post-operative endocarditis: following ...

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DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS (DVT)

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:50 PM Comments comments (1)

Clot formation within the deep venous system

usually of the calf, thigh or pelvic veins. The clot

can cause a local problem at site of formation or

dislodge leading to thromboembolism in various

parts of the body, particularly the lungs.

 

Causes

 

z

Venous stasis (immobilization, prolonged bed

rest, surgery, limb paralysis)

 

z

Heart failure, myocardial infarction ...

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VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:45 PM Comments comments (0)

Lack of vitamin A which is required for proper

functioning of the retina & of epithelial cells. More

common in children

 

Causes

 

z

Malnutrition

z

Severe childhood illness, eg. measles, whooping

cough

 

Clinical features

 

z

Night blindness

z

Conjunctival dryness - see Xerophthalmia,

z

Corneal ulceration...

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Protein Energy Malnutrition ([PEM) of Early Childhood

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:40 PM Comments comments (0)

Malnutrition in childhood.

 

The term malnutrition is derived from two French

 

words (mal = bad) and (Nutriture = nutrition) and

 

it literally means ‘bad nutrition’, and technically

 

includes under nutrition and over nutrition.

 

f

Malnutrition is a significant contributor/cause of

morbidity and mortality among children less than

five years of...

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Policy guidelines on infant and young child feeding, January, 2009

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:40 PM Comments comments (0)

All mothers should be counselled and supported

to initiate breastfeeding within an hour of

delivery and to exclusively breastfeed their

infants for the first six months of life unless

medically contra-indicated.

2.

Parents should be counselled and support to

introduce adequate, safe and appropriately fed

complimentary foods at six months of age and

continue breast feeding for two years.

3.

Pregn...

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Cryoprecipitate Transfusion Guidelines:

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:35 PM Comments comments (0)

Major Products Available:

 

Cryoprecipitated AHF (Cryoprecipitate)

Cryoprecipitated AHF, Pooled

 

Description/Contents:

 

The cold insoluble portion of plasma that

precipitates when fresh frozen plasma is thawed at

1-6oC. The supernatant (cryo-poor plasma) is

removed and the residual volume of cryoprecipitate

(approximately 15 ml) is refrozen and stored at -18

oC. Cryoprecip...

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Plasma Transfusion Guidelines

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:30 PM Comments comments (0)

Plasma

Major Products Available:

 

Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP)

 

Plasma Frozen Within 24 hours After Phlebotomy

(FP24)

 

FFP Thawed

 

Plasma, Cryoprecipitate Reduced

 

UCG 2010 164

 

 

 

7. Guidelines for appropriate use of blood

Description/Contents:

 

All plasma products are prepared by se...

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Platelet Transfusion Guidelines:

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:30 PM Comments comments (0)

Platelets

Major Products Available:

 

Platelets concentrate (Random donor platelets -

RDP)

 

Platelets Pooled

 

Description/Contents:

 

RDP are separated from whole blood by differential

centrifugation. One unit of RDP contains at least

5.5x1010 platelets, typically 7.5x1010 platelets.

Pooled RDP are typically prepared from 4-6 units of

RDP. Platelets a...

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Red Cell Transfusion Guidelines:

Posted by sammy on February 5, 2013 at 4:30 PM Comments comments (0)

Major Products Available: Red Blood Cells (pediatric pack/red cell concentrate)

 

Description/Contents:

 

Red Blood Cells (RBCs) are prepared from Whole Blood

(WB) by the removal of most of the plasma. RBCs are

stored in one of several saline-based anticoagulant/

preservative solutions, yielding a haematocrit (Hct)

between 55-80%.

 

Indications:

 

The major indication ...

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