MAGEZI

Your Health is our Concern

Blog Post New Entry

GENERAL ANAESTHETIC AGENTS

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 18, 2013 at 8:35 AM

Intravenous agents: thiopentone, ketamine,

propofol

Thiopentone

 

Solution concentration: 2.5% or 25 mg/ml

Route: intravenous

Dose: 3 to 5mg/kg body wt.

Indication: induction of anaesthesia,

anticonvulsant

Contraindication: airway obstruction, shock,

hypersensitivity to barbiturates, severe

heart disease

Side effects: drowsiness, depression of

cardio respiratory system( in clinical doses)

Complication: hypotension, apnoae (dose

dependent), tissue necrosis in case of

extravasation of the solution

Ketamine

 

Solution concentration: 50mg/ml, 10mg/ml

Route: intravenous, intramuscular

Dose: I.V. 1-2mg/kg body wt

I.M. 5-7mg/kg body wt

Indication: induction of anaesthesia,

maintenance of anaesthesia (infusion),

Analgesia

Contraindication: hypertension, epilepsy,

raised intracranial pressure e.g. head injury

Side effects: emergency delirium,

hallucinations, increased salivation,

increased muscle tone

Prevent salivation by atropine

premedication, treat emergency delirium by

giving diazepam

UCG 2010

423

 

 

 

18. Miscellaneous conditions

Propofol

 

Solution (emulsion): 1% or 10mg/ml

Route: intravenous

Dose: 1-2.5mg/kg body wt titrated at a rate

of 4mls/sec.

Indications: induction of anaesthesia,

maintenenance of anaesthesia

Contraindication: hypersensitivity,

hypotension, obstetrics, paediatrics

Side effects: pain at site of injection

2. Inhalational anaesthetic agents

Halothane

 

A volatile liquid at room temperature

 

Indication: induction of anaesthesia ( in

children, patients with airway obstruction)

Maintenance of anaesthesia

Precaution: -always use at least 30%

0xygen with halothane,

-

It is safe to avoid use of adrenalin to

prevent high incidence of arrhythmias

 

Adverse effects which may occur include:

-

Atony of the gravid uterus

-

Postoperative shivering

-

Severe cardiopulmonary depression

Ether

 

A highly volatile and inflammable liquid

 

Indication: maintenance of anaesthesia

Side effects: nausea and vomiting,

increases salivation, irritates the airway

Precaution: -Avoid sparks e.g. diathermy, in

the ether risk zone

- Give atropine to prevent salivation

MUSCLE RELAXANTS

 

Used to provide muscle relaxation to facilitate a

procedure

Precaution before using a muscle relaxant:

 

UCG 2010

424

 

 

 

18. Miscellaneous conditions

Have means of supporting the airway and

respiration

 

used in a patient who is unconscious e.g.

general anaesthesia, or sedated

Short acting muscle relaxant

Suxamethonium:

 

Solution concentration: 50 mg/ml

Action: fast onset and short duration

Route: intravenous or intramuscular

Dose: 1-2mg/kg body weight

Indication: muscle relaxation for short procedure

 

e.g. tracheal intubation, reduction of fracture

Contraindications: airway obstruction,

hyperkalaemia conditions e.g. tetanus, burns

>3days old.

Long acting muscle relaxants

Pancuronium:

 

Solution concentration: 2mg/ml

Action: slow onset and long duration (45 min.)

Route: intravenous

Dose: 4-6 mg initially thereafter 2mg or 0.08-

0.1mg/kg

Indication: muscle relaxants for long procedure e.g.

laparotomy

 

Atracurium:

 

Solution concentration: 10mg/ml

Action: duration=20 – 40 min.

Route: intravenous

Dose: 0.3- 0.6 mg/kg

Indication: muscle relaxation for operation of

intermediate duration

 

Categories: None

Post a Comment

Oops!

Oops, you forgot something.

Oops!

The words you entered did not match the given text. Please try again.

Already a member? Sign In

0 Comments