MAGEZI

Your Health is our Concern

Blog Post New Entry

Your Health is our concern

SIRSAMUEL.WEBS.COM

view:  full / summary

ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 18, 2013 at 8:40 AM Comments comments (3)

Acute hypersensitivity reaction

 

Cause

 

z

Allergy to pollens, some drugs (eg. penicillins,

vaccines, aspirin) or certain foods (eg. eggs, fish,

cow’s milk, nuts, some food additives)

 

z

Reaction to insect bites, eg. wasps and bees

 

Clinical features

 

z

Sudden collapse

z

Hypotension

z

Excessive ...

Read Full Post »

TECHNIQUES FOR REGIONAL ANAESTHESIA

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 18, 2013 at 8:40 AM Comments comments (0)

Detailed knowledge of anatomy, technique, and

possible complications is important for correct

injection placement.

 

 

Preoperative assessment and preparation of the

 

 

patient should be done.

Patient refusal and local sepsis are the only

absolute contraindications.

 

 

Select the appropriate technique for operation.

 

 

Read Full Post »

TECHNIQUES OF GENERAL ANAESTHESIA

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 18, 2013 at 8:40 AM Comments comments (0)

Requirements for all:

 

Take and record baseline vital signs

Establish intravenous line and commence

infusions

1. General anaesthesia with spontaneous

respiration

Induce anaesthesia by:

 

Intravenous route (adults)

UCG 2010

427

 

 

 

18. Miscellaneous conditions

Or

 

Read Full Post »

SELECTION OF TYPE OF ANAESTHESIA FOR THE PATIENT

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 18, 2013 at 8:35 AM Comments comments (0)

Consider

 

Patient factors: medical state, time of last meal,

mental state, wish of patient if applicable

Surgical factors: nature of surgery, site of

operation, estimated duration of surgery,

position in which the surgery is to be performed

Anaesthetic factors: availability of drugs,

experience and competence of the anaesthetic

provider

 

LOCAL ANAESTHETIC AGENTS

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 18, 2013 at 8:35 AM Comments comments (0)

Lignocaine:

 

Solution concentrations of lignocaine commonly

used:

 

Topical-larynx pharynx 20-40mg/ml or

100mg/ml

Infiltration 2.5- 5mg/ml ± with adrenaline

1:2.000.000

Nerve block 10- 20mg/ml ± adrenaline

1:2.000.000

Spinal 50mg/ml hyperbaric solution

Action:

fast onset

Plain lignoc...

Read Full Post »

GENERAL ANAESTHETIC AGENTS

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 18, 2013 at 8:35 AM Comments comments (0)

Intravenous agents: thiopentone, ketamine,

propofol

Thiopentone

 

Solution concentration: 2.5% or 25 mg/ml

Route: intravenous

Dose: 3 to 5mg/kg body wt.

Indication: induction of anaesthesia,

anticonvulsant

Contraindication: airway obstruction, shock,

hypersensitivity to barbiturates, severe

heart disease

Read Full Post »

ANAESTHESIA GUIDELINES

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 18, 2013 at 8:25 AM Comments comments (0)

Anaesthesia main objectives during surgery are:

 

To relieve pain

To support physiological functions

To provide good conditions for the operation

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

The facilities for administering anaesthesia

must be:

 

Available and in a state of readiness at all times

Appropriate in quality and quantity

Read Full Post »

FLUID & ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 18, 2013 at 8:20 AM Comments comments (0)

A condition where losses of bodily fluids from

whatever cause has led to significant disturbance in

the normal fluid and electrolyte levels needed to

maintain physiological functions.

 

Water and electrolyte exchange

 

z

Fluid consumption is 2-2.5L in 24 hours (1.5L by

mouth and 0.5-1L in solid food)

 

z

Daily fluid loss is through:

-

urine (800-1,500mL)

Read Full Post »

PAIN

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 18, 2013 at 8:15 AM Comments comments (0)

‘Pain is what the patient says hurts’

This is the most common symptom of disease. The nature, location and cause of pain differ in each case. Pain requires a holistic approach as it can be affected by spiritual, psychological, social and cultural factors which may need to be addressed after physical pain is controlled

Important categories of physical pain are: Nociceptive pain: the pain pathways are intact

- these pains respond to the ana...

Read Full Post »

Hypoglycemia

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 18, 2013 at 8:15 AM Comments comments (0)

A clinical condition due to reduced levels of blood sugar (glucose).

Causes

Overdose of insulin or anti-diabetic drugs

Excessive alcohol intake

Starvation

Operations to reduce the size of the stomach (gastrectomy)

Tumours of the pancreas (insulinomas)

Certain drugs, eg. quinine

Hormone deficiencies (cortisol, growth hormone)

Clinical features

Profuse sweating

Nervousness

Fainting

Pal...

Read Full Post »

FEBRILE CONVULSIONS

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 18, 2013 at 8:10 AM Comments comments (0)

A disorder mainly affecting children between 6 months and 6 years characterised by generalized tonic-clonic seizures in a febrile illness

Cause 

Malaria fever

Respiratory tract infections

Urinary tract infections

Other febrile conditions

Clinical features

Elevated temperatures (>38°C)

Convulsion is usually brief (<15 minutes) but may recur if temperature remains high

No CNS infection or neurological abn...

Read Full Post »

DEHYDRATION

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 18, 2013 at 8:10 AM Comments comments (0)

A condition brought about by the loss of significant

quantities of fluids and salts from the body

Cause

 Diarrhoea

Vomiting

Excessive sweating as in high fever Respiratory distress

Management in children HC2

Management with Plan A, B or C is based on an

assessment of the degree of dehydration according

to key clinical signs - see table below. Refer to

Management of Childhood Illness MoH 2000 fo...

Read Full Post »

RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 5, 2013 at 4:55 PM Comments comments (0)

A valvular complication of rheumatic fever.

 

The valves commonly involved are:

 

z

Mitral valves leading to stenosis, incompetence

or both

 

z

Aortic valve leading to stenosis and incompetence

 

Cause

 

z

As for acute rheumatic fever

 

Clinical features

 

z

Heart failure

 

z...

Read Full Post »

PULMONARY OEDEMA

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 5, 2013 at 4:55 PM Comments comments (0)

Congestion of the lung tissue with fluid

 

Cause

 

z

Cardiogenic: CCF

z

Inflammatory diseases, eg. cancer, TB

z

Fibrotic changes

 

Clinical features

 

z

Dyspnoea, breathlessness

z

Rapid breathing rate

z

Cough with frothy blood stained sputum

 

Differential diagnosis

 

z

...
Read Full Post »

PERICARDITIS

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 5, 2013 at 4:55 PM Comments comments (0)

Inflammation of the heart membrane (pericardium)

which may be:

z

Acute and self-limiting, sub-acute or chronic

z

Fibrinous, serous, haemorrhagic or purulent

 

 

UCG 2010

204

 

 

 

9. Cardiovascular diseases

Causes

 

z

Viral, eg. Coxsackie A & B, influenza A & B,

Varicella

 

z

...
Read Full Post »

SCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE (Coronary heart disease)

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 5, 2013 at 4:55 PM Comments comments (0)

A condition in which there is insufficient blood flow

through the coronary arteries of the heart thus

leading to ischaemia and/or infarction

 

Cause/risk factors

 

z

Deposition of fatty material (cholesterol plaques)

inside the coronary arteries

z

Enlarged heart following hypertension

z

Diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension

z

Smoking

z

H...

Read Full Post »

HYPERTENSION

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 5, 2013 at 4:55 PM Comments comments (0)

Persistently high resting blood pressure (>140/90mm Hg

at least two measurements five minutes apart with

patient seated).

 

Classification of Blood pressure (BP)*

 

Category SBP mmHg DBP mmHg

Normal <120 and <80

Prehypertension 120-139 or 80-89

Hypertension,

stage 1

140-159 or 90-99

Hypertension,

stage 2

=160 or =100

 

key: SBP=sy...

Read Full Post »

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 5, 2013 at 4:50 PM Comments comments (0)

Inadequate cardiac output for the body’s needs

despite adequate venous return - may be due to

failure of both left and right ventricles.

 

Causes

 

z

Hypertension

z

Valvular heart disease, eg. rheumatic heart disease

z

Anaemia

z

Myocarditis

z

Prolonged rapid heart beat (Arrythimias)

z

Thyroid disease

z

Cardiomy...

Read Full Post »

INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 5, 2013 at 4:50 PM Comments comments (0)

An infection of the heart valves and lining of the

heart chambers by microorganisms which is difficult

to diagnose and treat. It is classified into 3 types:

 

.

Sub-acute endocarditis: caused by low virulence

organisms such as Streptococcus viridans

.

Acute endocarditis: caused by common pyogenic

organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus

 

.

Post-operative endocarditis: following ...

Read Full Post »

DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS (DVT)

Posted by SAMUEL ISABIRYE on February 5, 2013 at 4:50 PM Comments comments (1)

Clot formation within the deep venous system

usually of the calf, thigh or pelvic veins. The clot

can cause a local problem at site of formation or

dislodge leading to thromboembolism in various

parts of the body, particularly the lungs.

 

Causes

 

z

Venous stasis (immobilization, prolonged bed

rest, surgery, limb paralysis)

 

z

Heart failure, myocardial infarction ...

Read Full Post »

Rss_feed